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  1. Khodabukus, A., and K Baar. Glucose concentration and streptomycin alter in vitro muscle function and metabolism. J Cell Physiol. 2014 Oct 30. doi: 10.1002/jcp.24857. [Epub ahead of print]
  2. Khodabukus A., and K. Baar. Contractile and Metabolic Properties of Engineered Skeletal Muscle Derived From Slow and Fast Phenotype Mouse Muscle. J Cell Physiol. 2014 Oct 21. [Epub ahead of print]
  3. Khodabukus A., and K. Baar. Streptomycin decreases the functional shift to a slow-phenotype induced by electrical stimulation in engineered muscle. Tissue Eng Part A. 2014 Oct 21. [Epub ahead of print]
  4. Khodabukus A., and K. Baar. The effect of serum origin on tissue engineered skeletal muscle function.J Cell Biochem. 2014 Dec;115(12):2198-207.
  5. Hamilton D.L., A. Philp, M.G. MacKenzie, A. Patton, M.C. Towler, I.J. Gallagher, S.C. Bodine, and K. Baar. Molecular brakes regulating mTORC1 activation in skeletal muscle following synergist ablation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Aug 15;307(4):E365-73.
  6. McGee S.L., C. Swinton, S. Morrison, V. Gaur, D.E. Campbell, S.B. Jorgensen, B.E. Kemp, K. Baar, G.R. Steinberg, and M. Hargreaves. Compensatory regulation of HDAC5 in muscle maintains metabolic adaptive responses and metabolism in response to energetic stress. 2014 Aug;28(8):3384-95.
  7. Wecksler, A.T., S.H. Hwang, H.I. Wettersten, J.E. Gilda, A. Patton, L.J. Leon, K.L. Carraway 3rd, A.V. Gomes, K. Baar, R.H. Weiss, B.D. Hammock. Novel sorafenib-based structural analogues: in-vitro anticancer evaluation of t-MTUCB and t-AUCMB. Anticancer Drugs. 2014 Apr;25(4):433-46.
  8. Philp, A., M.G. MacKenzie, M.Y. Belew, M.C. Towler, A. Corstorphine, A. Papalamprou, D. G. Hardie, and K. Baar. Glycogen Content Regulates Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-∂ (PPAR-∂) Activity in Rat Skeletal Muscle. PLOS ONE  Oct 17;8(10):e77200.
  9. Hwee D.T., L.M. Baehr, A. Philp, K. Baar, and S.C. Bodine. Maintenance of muscle mass and load-induced growth in Muscle RING Finger 1 null mice with age. Aging Cell. 2014. Feb;13(1):92-101.
  10. Mackenzie, M.G., D.L. Hamilton, M. Pepin, A. Patton, and K. Baar. Inhibition of Myostatin Signaling through Notch Activation following Acute Resistance Exercise. PLoS One. 2013 Jul 2;8(7):e68743.
  11. Martin, N.R.W., S.L. Passey, D.J. Player, A. Khodabukus, R.A. Ferguson, A.P. Sharples, V. Mudera, K. Baar, AND M.P. Lewis. Factors affecting the structure and maturation of human tissue engineered skeletal muscle. Biomaterials. 2013 Jul;34(23):5759-65.
  12. Deldicque L., P.D. Cani, N.M. Delzenne, K. Baar, and M. Francaux. Endurance training in mice increases the unfolded protein response induced by a high-fat diet. J. Physiol Biochem. 2013 Jun;69(2):215-25.
  13. Timmons, J.A., K. Baar, P. Davidsen, and P.J. Atherton. Is irisin a human exercise gene? Nature. 2012 488(7413): E9-10
  14. Hagerty, P., A. Lee, S. Calve, C.A. Lee, M. Vidal, and K. Baar. The effect of growth factors on both collagen synthesis and tensile strength of engineered human ligaments. Biomaterials. 2012 Sep;33(27):6355-61.
  15. Churchward-Venne, T.A., N.A. Burd, C.J. Mitchell, D.W. West, A. Philp, G.R. Marcotte, S.K. Baker, K. Baar, and S.M. Phillips. Supplementation of a suboptimal protein dose with leucine or essential amino acids: effects on myofibrillar protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in men. J Physiol. 2012 Jun 1;590(Pt 11):2751-65.
  16. Park, S.J., F. Ahmad, A. Philp, K. Baar, T. Williams, H. Luo, H. Ke, H. Rehmann, R. Taussig, A.L. Brown, M.K. Kim, M.A. Beaven, A.B. Burgin, V. Manganiello, J.H. Chung. Resveratrol ameliorates aging-related metabolic phenotypes by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterases. Cell. 2012 Feb 3;148(3):421-33.
  17. Khodabukus, A., and K. Baar. Defined electrical stimulation emphasizing excitability for the development and testing of engineered skeletal muscle. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2012 May;18(5):349-57.
  18. Schenk S., C.E. McCurdy, A. Philp, M.Z. Chen, M.J. Holliday, G.K. Bandyopadhyay, O. Osborn, K. Baar, and J.M. Olefsky. Sirt1 enhances skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in mice during caloric restriction. J Clin Invest. 2011 Nov 1;121(11):4281-8.
  19. Paxton J.Z., P. Hagerty, J.J. Andrick, and K. Baar. Optimizing an intermittent stretch paradigm using ERK1/2 phosphorylation results in increased collagen synthesis in engineered ligaments. Tissue Eng Part A. 2012 Feb;18(3-4):277-84.
  20. Philp, A., M.Y. Belew, A. Evans, D. Pham, I. Sivia, A. Chen, S. Schenk, and K. Baar. The PGC-1a related co-activator (PRC) promotes mitochondrial and myogenic adaptations in C2C12 myotubes. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 Oct;301(4):R864-72.
  21. Philp, A., A. Chen, D. Lan, G.A. Meyer, A.N. Murphy, A.E. Knapp, I.M. Olfert, C.E. McCurdy, G.R. Marcotte, M.C. Hogan, K. Baar, and S. Schenk. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase activity is not required for mitochondrial biogenesis or peroxisome proliferator activated receptor g coactivator-1a (PGC-1a) deacetylation following endurance exercise. J Biol Chem. 2011 Sep 2;286(35):30561-70.
  22. Breen, L., A. Philp, O.C. Witard, S.R. Jackman, A. Selby, K. Smith, K. Baar, and K.D. Tipton. The influence of carbohydrate-protein co-ingestion following endurance exercise on myofibrillar and mitochondrial protein synthesis. J Physiol. 2011 Aug 15;589(Pt 16):4011-25.
  23. Breen, L., A. Philp, C.S. Shaw, A.E. Jeukendrup, K. Baar, and K.D. Tipton. Beneficial effects of resistance exercise on glycemic control are not further improved by protein ingestion. PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e20613.
  24. Deldicque L., L. Bertrand, A. Patton, M. Francaux, and K. Baar. ER Stress Induces Anabolic Resistance in Muscle Cells through PKB-Induced Blockade of mTORC1. PLoS ONE 2011 6(6): e20993.
  25. McPhee, J.S., A. Williams, J. Pérez Schindler, H. Degens, K. Baar, and D.A. Jones. Variability in the magnitude of response of metabolic enzymes reveals patterns of coordinated expression following endurance training in women. Exp Physiol. 2011  Jul;96(7):699-707.
  26. Pérez-Schindler, J., A. Philp, K. Baar, and J. Hernández-Cascales. Regulation of contractility and metabolic signaling by the β(2)-adrenergic receptor in rat ventricular muscle. Life Sci. 2011 May 9;88(19-20):892-7.
  27. McPhee, J.S., J. Perez-Schindler, H. Degens, D. Tomlinson, P. Hennis, K. Baar, A.G. Williams. HIF1A P582S gene association with endurance training responses in young women. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011 Sep;111(9):2339-47.
  28. Preston, R.S., A. Philp, T. Claesens, E.A. Dunlop, L. Gijezen, K.T. Harper, T. Brinkhuizen, D.M. Davies, S.S. Land, K. Baar, M. van Steensel and A.R. Tee. Absence of the Birt-Hogg-Dubé gene product is associated with increased Hypoxia Inducible Factor transcriptional activity and a loss of metabolic flexibility. Oncogene, 2011 Mar 10;30(10):1159-73.
  29. Hamilton D.L., A. Philp, M.G. MacKenzie, and K. Baar. A limited role for PI(3,4,5)P3 regulation in controlling skeletal muscle mass in response to resistance exercise. PLoS One. 2010 Jul 16;5(7):e11624
  30. Paxton J.Z., L.M. Grover, and K. Baar. Engineering an In Vitro Model of a Functional Ligament from Bone to Bone. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010 Nov;16(11):3515-25.
  31. Hamilton, D.L., A. Philp, M.G. MacKenzie, and K. Baar. Prolonged activation of S6K1 does not suppress IRS or PI-3 kinase signaling during muscle cell differentiation. BMC Cell Biol. 2010 May 27;11:37.
  32. Deldicque L, P.D. Cani, A. Philp, J.M. Raymackers, P.J. Meakin, M.L. Ashford, N.M. Delzenne, M. Francaux, and K. Baar. The unfolded protein response is activated in skeletal muscle by high-fat feeding: potential role in the down-regulation of protein synthesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Nov;299(5):E695-705.
  33. Paxton J.Z., K. Donnelly, R.P. Keatch, K. Baar, and L.M. Grover. Factors Affecting the Longevity and Strength in an In Vitro Model of the Bone-Ligament Interface. Ann Biomed Eng. 2010 Jun;38(6):2155-66.
  34. Philp A, J. Perez-Schindler, C. Green, D.L. Hamilton, and K Baar. Pyruvate suppresses PGC-1α expression and substrate utilisation despite increased respiratory chain content in C2C12 myotubes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010 Aug;299(2):C240-50.
  35. Bayer M.L., C.Y. Yeung, K.E. Kadler, K. Qvortrup, K. Baar, R.B. Svensson, S.P. Magnusson, M. Krogsgaard, M. Koch M, and M. Kjaer. The initiation of embryonic-like collagen fibrillogenesis by adult human tendon fibroblasts when cultured under tension. Biomaterials. 2010 Jun;31(18):4889-97.
  36. Hulston, C.J., M.C. Venables, C.H. Mann, C. Martin, A. Philp, K. Baar, and A.E. Jeukendrup. Training with low muscle glycogen enhances adaptations in fat metabolism in well-trained cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Nov;42(11):2046-55.
  37. Donnelly, K, A. Philp, A. Khodubukus, L. Deldicque and K. Baar. A novel bioreactor for stimulating skeletal muscle in vitro. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2010 Aug;16(4):711-8.
  38. McPhee, J.S., A.G. Williams, C. Stewart, K. Baar, J.P. Schindler, S. Aldred, N. Maffulli, A.J. Sargeant, and D.A. Jones The training stimulus experienced by the leg muscles during cycling in humans. Exp. Physiol. 2009 Jun;94(6):684-94.
  39. Khodabukus, A., and K. Baar. Regulating Fibrinolysis to Engineer Skeletal Muscle from the C2C12 Cell Line. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2009 Sep;15(3):501-11.
  40. MacKenzie, M.G., D.L. Hamilton, J.T. Murray, P.M. Taylor, and K. Baar.  mVps34 is activated following high-resistance contractions. J Physiol. 2009 Jan 15;587(Pt 1):253-60.
  41. Paxton, J.Z., K. Donnelly, R.P. Keatch, and K. Baar. Engineering the Bone-Ligament Interface Using Polyethylene Glycol Diacrylate Incorporated with Hydroxyapatite. Tissue Eng Part A. 2009 Jun;15(6):1201-9.
  42. Kapacee, Z., S.H. Richardson, Y. Lu, T. Starborg, D.F. Holmes, K. Baar, and K.E. Kadler. Tension is required for fibripositor formation. Matrix Biology, 2008 27:371–375.
  43. McGee, S.L., K.J. Mustard, D.G. Hardie, and K. Baar. Normal Hypertrophy Accompanied by Phosphoryation and Activation of AMPK-α1 Following Overload in LKB1 Knockout Mice. J Physiol. 2008 Mar 15;586(6):1731-41.
  44. Mackenzie M.G., D.L. Hamilton, J.T. Murray, and K. Baar. mVps34 is activated by an acute bout of resistance exercise. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 Oct;35(Pt 5):1314-6.
  45. Cuthbertson D.J., J. Babraj, G.P. Leese, K. Baar, K.J.W. Mustard, K. Smith, C. Sutherland, D.G. Hardie, and M.J. Rennie. AICAR acutely stimulates skeletal muscle glucose uptake in healthy men. Diabetes. 2007 Aug;56(8):2078-84.
  46. Timmons J.A., K. Wennmalm, O. Larsson, T.B. Walden, T. Lassmann, N. Petrovic, D.L. Hamilton, R.E. Gimeno, C. Wahlestedt, K. Baar, J. Nedergaard, and B. Cannon. Myogenic gene expression signature establishes that brown and white adipocytes originate from distinct cell lineages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Mar 13;104(11):4401-6.
  47. Arruda E.M., K. Mundy, S. Calve,,and K. Baar. Denervation does not change the ratio of collagen I and collagen III mRNA in the extracellular matrix of muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Feb;292(2):R983-7.
  48. Lockhart NC, Baar K, Mazzeo RS, Brooks SV. Activation of Akt as a potential mediator of adaptations that reduce muscle injury. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Jun;38(6):1058-64.
  49. Arruda EM, Calve S, Dennis RG, Mundy K, Baar K. Regional variation of tibialis anterior tendon mechanics is lost following denervation. J Appl Physiol. 2006 Oct;101(4):1113-7.
  50. Huang YC, Dennis RG, Baar K. Cultured slow vs. fast skeletal muscle cells differ in physiology and responsiveness to stimulation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006 Jul;291(1):C11-7.
  51. Hecker, L., K. Baar, and K.N. Bitar. Development of a 3-Dimensional Physiological Model of the Internal Anal Sphincter Bioengineered in-vitro from Isolated Smooth Muscle Cells. Amer. J. Physiol.: Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 2005 Aug;289: G188-G196.
  52. Baar, K., R. Birla, M.O. Boluyt, G.H. Borschel, E.M. Arruda, and R.G. Dennis. Heart muscle by design: self-organization of rat cardiac cells into contractile 3-D cardiac tissue. FASEB J. 2005 Feb;19(2):275-7.
  53. Huang, Y-C, R.G. Dennis, and K. Baar. Rapid formation of functional muscle in vitro using fibrin gels. Feb 2005; 98: 706 - 713.
  54. Calve, S.C., R.G. Dennis, P.E. Kosnik II, K. Baar, K. Grosh and E.M. Arruda. Engineering of functional tendon. Tissue Engineering 2004 10(5/6): p. 755-761.
  55. Baar, K., Z. Song, C.F. Semenkovich, T.E. Jones, D.H. Han, L.A. Nolte, E.O. Ojuka, M. Chen, and J.O. Holloszy. Overexpression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 increases muscle glucose transport capacity. FASEB J. 2003 17(12): p. 1666-1673.
  56. Jones, T.E., K. Baar, E. Ojuka, M. Chen, and J. O. Holloszy. Exercise induces an increase in muscle UCP3 as a component of the increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. Amer. J. Physiol. 2003, 284 (Endocrinol. Metab.): E96-E101.
  57. Baar, K., A.R. Wende, T.E. Jones, M. Marison, L.A. Nolte, M. Chen, D.P. Kelly, and J.O. Holloszy. Adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise: rapid increase in the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1. FASEB J. 2002 16: 1879-1886.
  58. Chen, Y.W., G. Nader, K. Baar, M. Fedele, E.P. Hoffman, and K.A. Esser. Response of muscle to acute resistance exercise defined by transcriptional and translational profiling. J. of Physiol. 2002 Nov 15;545(Pt 1):27-41.
  59. Baar, K., C. E. Torgan, W. E. Kraus, and K. A. Esser. Autocrine phosphorylation of the 70 KDa S6 protein kinase in response to acute stretch in C2C12 myotubes. Mol. Cell Biol. Res. Comm. 2001: 76-80.
  60. Baar, K., and K. A. Esser. Activation of p70S6k correlates with skeletal muscle hypertrophy in the rat. Amer. J. Physiol. 1999, 276 (Cell Physiol. 45): C120-C127.

Chapters in Books

  1. Baar, K. and H. Wackerhage. Molecular Adaptation to Endurance Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Fibre Plasticity. In: H. Wackerhage, editor. Molecular Exercise Physiology: An Introduction. New York, NY: Routledge; 2014. p. 79-111.
  2. Baar, K. and H. Wackerhage. Molecular Adaptation to Resistance Exercise. In: H. Wackerhage, editor. Molecular Exercise Physiology: An Introduction. New York, NY: Routledge; 2014. p. 133-55.
  3. Aguirre, N., L.J. van Loon, and K. Baar. The role of amino acids in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise. Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2013;76:85-102.
  4. Philp, A.  and K. Baar: Resistance Training, Molecular Mechanisms, Frank C. Mooren and James S. Skinner, (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Exercise Medicine in Health and Disease. 2012.
  5. Philp A, Burke LM, Baar K. Altering endogenous carbohydrate availability to support training adaptations. Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2011;69:19-37.
  6. Bodine, S.C., and K. Baar. Analysis of skeletal muscle hypertrophy in models of increased loading. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;798:213-29.
  7. Phillips, S.  and K. Baar: Nutrition for Weight and Resistance Training. Susan Lanham-New, Samantha Stear, Susan Shirreffs, and Adam Collins (Eds.), Nutrition Society Textbook on Sport and Exercise Nutrition. 120-133, 2011.
  8. Hamilton, DL, MacKenzie, MG, and K Baar. Molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle hypertrophy: using molecular biology to understand muscle growth. In: J. Magalhaes and A. Ascensao (Eds.) Muscle Plasticity – Advances in Biochemical and Physiological Research. Kerala: The Research Signpost/ Transworld Research Network. 2009; p 45-94.
  9. Dennis, R.G., Benjamin Smith, Philp, A., Donnelly, K., and K Baar. Bioreactors for guiding muscle tissue growth and development. In: Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol. 2009;112:39-79.
  10. Baar K, Nader G, Bodine S. Resistance exercise, muscle loading/unloading and the control of muscle mass. In: Essays Biochem. 2006;42:61-74.
  11. Baar, K., E. Blough, B. Dineen, and K. Esser. Transcriptional regulation in response to exercise. In: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, edited by J. O. Holloszy. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999, p. 333-379.

Commissioned Review Articles

  1. Sepulveda, P.V., E.D. Bush, and K. Baar. The Pharmacology Of Manipulating Lean Body Mass. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2014 Oct 14. [Epub ahead of print].
  2. Watson, K., and K. Baar. mTOR and the health benefits of exercise. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2014 [Epub ahead of print].
  3. Perez-Schindler, J., D.L. Hamilton, D.R. Moore, K. Baar, and A. Philp. Nutritional strategies to support concurrent training. Eur J Sport Sci. 2014 Aug 27:1-12.
  4. Baar, K. Nutrition and the adaptation to endurance training. Sports Med. 2014 44(S1):S5-12.
  5. West DW, Baar K. May the Force move you: TSC-ing the mechanical activation of mTOR. J Physiol. 2013 Sep 15;591(Pt 18):4369-70.
  6. Paxton, J.Z., K. Baar and L.M. Grover. Current Progress in Enthesis Repair: Strategies for Interfacial Tissue Engineering. Orthopedic Muscul Sys S1:003.
  7. Philp, A., and K. Baar. Fine-tuning metabolism - how products of contraction regulate skeletal muscle adaptation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jun;302(11): E13134.
  8. Philp, A., M. Hargreaves, and K. Baar. More than a store: Regulatory roles for glycogen in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jun;302(11):E1343-51.
  9. Baar K, and M. Hargreaves. Understanding the regulation of muscle plasticity. J. Appl Physiol. 2011 Jan;110(1):256-7.
  10. Philp A., D.L. Hamilton, and K. Baar. Signals mediating skeletal muscle remodeling by resistance exercise: PI3-kinase independent activation of mTORC1. J Appl Physiol. 2010 Feb;110(2):561-8.
  11. Baar K, D.L. Hamilton, and A Philp. Comments on Point:Counterpoint: IGF is/is not the major physiological regulator of muscle mass. Irrelevant growth factor-I. J Appl Physiol. 2010 Jun;108(6):1827.
  12. Baar K. The signaling underlying FITness. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009 Jun;34(3):411-9.
  13. Baar K., and D.G. Hardie. Small molecules can have big effects on endurance. Nat Chem Biol. 2008 Oct;4(10):583-4.
  14. Philp, A., and  K. Baar. Optimising training adaptations by manipulating glycogen. AgroFOOD industry hi-tech. 2008 Mar/Apr 19(2):14-18.
  15. Baar, K., and S. McGee. Optimizing training adaptations by manipulating glycogen. European Journal of Sport Science, 2008 8: 97-106.
  16. Hamilton, D.L., and K. Baar. Muscle growth: no IGFs, ands, or buts. J Physiol. 2008 Jan 1;586(Pt 1):5-6.
  17. Mackenzie M.G., D.L. Hamilton, J.T. Murray, Baar K. mVps34 is activated by an acute bout of resistance exercise. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 Nov;35(Pt 5):1314-6.
  18. Khodabukus, A., J.P. Paxton, K. Donnelly, and K. Baar. Engineered muscle: a tool for studying muscle physiology and function. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2007 Oct;35(4):186-91
  19. Paxton, J. Z. and K. Baar. Tendon Mechanics: The Argument Heats Up. J Appl Physiol, 2007.
  20. Baar K. Training for endurance and strength: lessons from cell signaling. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Nov;38(11):1939-44.
  21. Baar K. To perform your best: work hard not long. J Physiol. 2006 Sep 15;575(Pt 3):690.
  22. Baar, K. New Dimensions in Tissue Engineering: Possible Models for Human Physiology. Exp Physiol Exp Physiol. 2005 90:799-806.
  23. Baar, K. Involvement of PPARγ co-activator-1, nuclear respiratory factors 1 and 2, and PPARα in the adaptive response to endurance exercise. Proc. Nutrition Soc. 2004(2): p. 269-273

Last updated: November 16, 2014
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